Study on the Impact of Wet Markets Accessibility and Equality of Spatial Distribution on Food Security in Households: A Case Study of Nanjing City
Master Thesis, Nanjing University
With the development of the social economy and the improvement of the living quality of the residents, the quality andquantity of the food demand of the family is getting higher and higher. The degree of food security in China is widely concerned by the international community. FAO and some countries extend food security from a macro national level to a micro family level. And as the receptor of food supply, family’s ability and opportunity to get food directly affect the level of food security at the micro level. In China, as the main carrier of food supply and the basic public service facilities in the city, the quantity and the spatial distribution of the wet market have an important influence on the social and economic development, the living standard of the residents and the national health condition. Although domestic scholars have achieved some results in food security at the macro level，there is no empirical basis for food security research at the micro level; And let alone the study from the perspective of urban planning, the impact of food supply accessibility and layout equality on family food security is analyzed. This paper explores the impact of accessibility and layout equality of food supply on micro food security, attempting to provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of the living standard of the residents and the level of social supporting facilities and provide a relatively complete perspective for the study of food security.
In view of above all, this paper takes Nanjing city as the research object, based on the theory of public service facilities and supported by GIS spatial analysis technology. Considering the influence of the scale of the wet markets and the size of the population, the model of the accessibility measure of Nanjing wet markets is constructed, using for scientific analysis of the time cost accessibility of Nanjing city. Then from the perspective of spatial and non-spatial perspective, the measurement model of wet markets layout equality of Nanjing is established, in order to explore the spatial differentiation law of the wet markets.And according to the questionnaire survey, network grabbing and other ways to obtain Nanjing family food security related data, establish the Nanjing family food security measure model to analyze the food security situation in Nanjing city. Last, the multilevel linear model is established on the premise of getting the accessibility and layout equality of wet markets in Nanjing, selecting influencing factors of food security from family level and county level respectively to explore the relationship between the former two on the latter one deeply. The main conclusions of the article are as follows：
(1) The accessibility of the wet markets is shown a “core periphery” mode, forming a structure of circle of center of central urban area and decreasing progressively to the marginal area. With the traffic along the “trunk”, accessibility is evenly distributed to the fringe area, while the accessibility is relatively high in the central population zone of the Lishui and Gaochun districts.In addition, the residential districts with less than 100 of accessibilityaccount for 82.2% of the total number of residential districts in Nanjing.The accessibility of Qinhuai district is 1746 times as high as that of Lishui district. The degree of accessibility between different districts is relatively large, which fully indicates that the spatial distribution of accessibility in wet markets in Nanjing is seriously unbalanced.
(2) The spatial distribution of vegetable farms in Nanjing is generally at a relatively equal level, but the difference between regions is obvious.The Gini coefficient of Nanjing wet markets is 0.22, which is at a relatively average level.The Lorenz curve shows that 10% of the resident population enjoy only 5% of the wet markets resources and 20% of the resident population enjoy only less than 10% of the wet markets resources, and 20% of the resident population enjoy more wet markets, and 10% of the population enjoy 11% wet markets resources and 30% of the permanent population enjoy 40%.On the spatial level, the average location entropy value is 0.95, the spatial distribution of the wet markets is equal.The regions with higher entropy are still concentrated in the four districts (Gulou District, Qinhuai District, Xuanwu District and Jianye District), and the regional entropy of the per capita enjoyment of vegetable farm in Nanjing is higher than that in the north and the south, and the northern trend is higher than that in the south.
(3) The food security of families in central of Nanjing and part of Gaochun District such as Yaxi town, Dongba town and Gucheng town, is obviously higher than that in other areas. And the low level of food security concentrate on in Jiangning District, Liuhe District and Qixia District. The overall trend of comprehensive food security showed a trend of “high in the middle, low in periphery, high in North and South”, and uneven in spatial distribution.
(4) The accessibility and equal distribution of the wet markets play a positive role in family food security in Nanjing.There is a significant positive effect of family level accessibility on food security:in the study, the time cost accessibility coefficient is -0.02, which indicates that the increase of food costs per time is 0.02 when the time cost of residents arriving at the food market is increased by 1; the equalization of wet market distribution in the county and county level plays a significant positive role in food security:the correlation coefficient is 0.43, which means that the higher the proportion of wet market per capita is, the easier it is for residents to get the needed food, so the level of food security will be improved
Therefore, from the microlevel, we will explore the influence of the accessibility and the equal distribution of the wet marketsin Nanjing on the food security of the residents, and provide a theoretical basis for the improvement of the living standard of the residents and the level of social supporting facilities, and provide a relatively complete perspective for the research of food security.