Age and Sex-Specific Risk Factors for Non-communicable Diseases Among Adults in Namibia: A Case Study of Diabetes and Hypertension
Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) have become a major public health concern in both developed and developing countries. In Namibia, NCD attributable deaths are increasing; estimated at about 43% of all the deaths. Mapping context-specific risk factors of NCDs is critical for public health interventions. This study aimed to determine the age and sex-specific prevalence and associated factors of NCDs, particularly diabetes and high blood pressure among the adult population in Namibia. Using the 2013 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data, we generate agerelated charts for both women and men, and fitted separate multiple logistic regression models for men and women, controlling for age. Our findings show that, for both women and men, the risk of diabetes and high blood pressure increased by age. However, older men were more likely to have high blood pressure than women. Equally, for both women and men, the risk of diabetes and hypertension disease increase with body mass index and wealth index. Evidently, implementation of gender and age-specific interventions may accelerate reduction of disparities in non-communicable diseases burden. These may include interventions that encourage change of lifestyle like engaging in physical activities, eating healthy and regular check-ups.